Existentialism: there is no purpose or explanation at the core of existence. The only way to overcome this nothingness and rise above the irrationality of the universe is to embrace individual existence and freedom of choice.
Determinism: every event is caused by an unbroken chain of prior events
Objective Idealism: the physical world exists, but the mind and the spiritual world take precedent over it;
they constitute the fundamental reality
Dialectical Materialism: within each object and situation there are opposing forces acting against one another.
A turning point is reached when one force overcomes the other, and at this point a new object or situation is created.